International Journal of Public Administration, Management and Economic Development

2019, Volume 4, Issue 2

ISSN: 2533-4077

Political, Economical and Cultural Barriers to Importing Sugar Cane as a BIO Product from China to EU

Jiří Nesiba, Renata Čuhlová

China is the fourth largest sugarcane producer in the world. The EU is the world's largest importer of cane sugar. That is the question why Chinese influence on the EU market is only marginal and no significant change has occurred since EU quotas on sugarcane import fell in 2017. The paper investigates the reasons why imports of cane sugar from China into the EU keep stagnating despite the liberalization efforts on both markets and growing demand for unrefined brown cane sugar in Europe as a healthier alternative to white sugar from sugar beet plant in Europe. Authors identify the three main barriers to the development of China-EU sugar cane trade. These are political-economic, productive and cultural barriers. Combining all these three elements creates the current state.

Keywords: BIO product; cane sugar; internationalization; trade China-EU

National strategies of the Slovak Republic

Petr Janíček

The National Strategic Papers of the State of the Slovak Republic are documents that determine regional development. Their creation of methodology and structure is not strictly given. For this reason, strategic objectives should be based on decision support. The paper aims to identify the content structure of national documents of the Slovak Republic. It also considered used decision-making approaches. The content analysis method was used to determine the main targeting. Following strategic documents focusing on national strategic issues have been selected for the Slovak Republic: National Regional Development Strategy of the Slovak Republic, National Sustainable Development Strategy, Departmental conception of environmental education up to 2025, Strategic Road Transport Development Plan of the SR until 2030 - Phase II. The survey also compared decision-making approaches in partial documents. The relevant documents deal mainly with the solution of problems such as: protection of the environment and natural resources, sustainable development, transport, redistribution of European funds, global problems and visions.

Keywords: national strategic document, development, conception, strategic planning

Public purpose as an essential necessity of expropriation

Karolina Muzyczka

The Constitution of the Republic of Poland guarantees its citizens that the state protects the property and the right of inheritance. At the same time, pursuant to art. 21 par. 2 of the Basic Law, expropriation is permissible only if it is made for public purposes and for just compensation. The protection of property is also provided for by the Polish law of international law. According to art. 1 of Protocol No. 1 of 20 March 1952 to the Convention of November 4, 1950 on the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, each natural and legal person has the right to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions. No one shall be deprived of his possessions except in the public interest and under the conditions provided for by law and in accordance with the general principles of international law. The expropriation conditions in Poland were determined by the Act of 21 August 1997 on real estate management. Expropriation of immovable property consists in deprivation or limitation, by way of a decision, of ownership rights, perpetual usufruct right or other right in rem over real property. At the same time, expropriation is only possible in relation to real estate located in areas designated for local purposes for public purposes or for real estate for which a decision was made to determine the location of a public purpose investment.

Keywords: Public goal; Public restriction of property rights; Property rights; Administrative recognition; Public-law partnership

Governance and Leadership Practices and Challenges in Ethiopia. The Case of Dukem Town, Oromia Regional state

Jemal Abagissa

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of leadership on governance effectiveness in Dukem town. The population of this study were development team coordinators, representatives of private business organizations, and community institutions of the town. In addition, cabinet members and civil servants of the town administration were the target population for the source of data in this assessment. A total of 145 samples were selected using purposive and random sampling methods. The findings show that important traits of a leader that results in effective and better performance were missing. The informants argued that poor commitment is noticeable in the implementation of good governance in the town. Leaders are promoted to higher positions without being sufficiently prepared for the leadership role and with less sufficient understanding of the significance of good governance principles. In addition, lack of competence, inefficient and ineffective monitoring and evaluation system were major factors that contributed to ineffectiveness of leadership practices of the town administration. This poor achievement is manifested in poor coordination with stakeholders, rent seeking attitudes and poor commitment of the leadership and employees. Although various initiatives have been pursed in Oromia National Regional State to ensure good governance such as citizen charter, fighting rent seeking attitudes and making some arrangements in running town affairs, still ineffective leadership and bad governance is reported in different urban centers of the region.

Keywords: Governance; Leadership; Town administration; Accountability; Responsiveness

The volatility of market risk of Viet Nam hardware industry after the low inflation period 2015-2017

Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

The Vietnam economy and hardware industry have gained lots of achievements after the financial crisis 2007-2011, until it reached a low inflation rate of 0.6% in 2015. Software companies face challenges in expanding Vietnam market such as pricing policy and supporting services, etc. This paper measures the volatility of market risk in Viet Nam hardware industry after this period (2015-2017). The main reason is the vital role of the software company group in Vietnam in the economic development and growth in recent years always go with risk potential and risk control policies. This research paper aims to figure out how much increase or decrease in the market risk of Vietnam hardware firms during the post-low inflation period 2015-2017. First, by using quantitative combined with comparative data analysis method, we find out the risk level measured by equity beta mean in the hardware industry is acceptable, i.e it is little lower than 1. Then, one of its major findings is the comparison between risk level of hardware industry during the financial crisis 2007-2009 compared to those in the post-low inflation time 2015-2017. In fact, the research findings show us market risk fluctuation, measured by asset and equity beta var, during the post-low inflation time has increased considerably. Finally, this paper provides some ideas that could provide companies and government more evidence in establishing their policies in governance. This is the complex task but the research results shows us warning that the market risk volatility might be higher during the post-low inflation period 2015-2017. And our conclusion part will recommend some policies and plans to deal with it. Finding new potential markets and credit and financing policies are among directions for hardware companies.

Keywords: Risk management, Asset beta, Financial crisis, Hardware industry, Policy

National strategies of the Czech Republic

Hana Šedová

The national strategic documents of the State of the Czech Republic are documents determining regional development. Their methodology and structure are not strictly given by regulation. On this reason, strategic objectives should be based to support decision-making. The paper aims to identify the content structure of the national documents of the Czech Republic and compare the used decision-making approaches. For data processing the content analysis was used, which also applied encoding. As the main contextual unit represents the national strategic document of the Czech Republic. National strategic documents of the Czech Republic represent the highest strategic documents describing their significance and importance. There is a similarly set outline in the documents that describes each section of its content. The Czech Republic's national strategy implementing multicriterial decision-making has demonstrated the greatest application of decision-making techniques. Other national documents rather present strategic objectives and emphasize the importance of strategic decision making, but without a more detailed description of the techniques in the objectives described.

Keywords: strategic framework; strategic document; national development; the Czech Republic

Start-ups as key element of regional development

Hana Štverková, Michal Pohludka

Start-up business is considered a phenomenon of the last ten years. Start-ups have their potential in technologies, digital innovations and the Internet, which can quickly cater to users from around the globe. This article considered factors connected with start-ups as key element of regional development. The topic deals with start-ups in the Czech Republic ecosystem in terms of the current socio-economic and technological change with focus on regional development. The aim of the paper is to monitor and to evaluate the current trend in strategic decision-making of global enterprises in relation to start-ups and their impact on regional and national development in the Czech Republic based on secondary analysis and observation. The start-ups have potential for regional development. Although the differences in optimum conditions for their development and growth vary by locations, they can occur anywhere. Start-up ecosystem tends to tornadoes of exit of small start-ups in the form of acquisitions and mergers by global businesses. Regional and national policy should focus primarily on the dissemination and development of entrepreneurial skills and the transfer of know-how from experienced entrepreneurs to those starting out. Successful, advanced start-ups have a much greater impact on the positive development of the region than start-ups.

Keywords: start-up; ecosystem; regional development; sustainability;