International Journal of Public Administration, Management and Economic Development

2021, Volume 6, Issue 2

Epitomes of New Public Management: Insights from Illustrative Literature on Worldwide Public Sector Reform Agendas

Anup Chowdhury, Nikhil Chandra Shil

Traditional public organisations were run by rational rules and procedures. The structured hierarchies, formal decision-making processes and advancement based on administrative expertise were found in the traditional public organizations. These public organisations were motivated by political considerations than by financial considerations. However, these situations have changed and new mechanisms and approaches have been developed in the public sector for the delivery of public goods and services. To improve efficiency in management in the public sector a renewed interest has developed to implement private sector management practices in the public sector. These improved management practices not only have assisted in locating the inefficiencies of the past and ensuring better performance is achieved in the future, but also to make the public sector management and employees accountable for their actions and decisions. These elements of reforms also created a new orthodoxy in the public sector, namely ‘New Public Management’ (NPM). The present study is an earnest quest to explore the trends of these new management approaches which were implemented worldwide in different countries.

Keywords: new public management; public sector reforms

Intergenerational Dialogue in the Network Society. The analysis of chosen examples from social media

Ewa Dryglas-Komorowska

This article shows the problem of intergenarational dialogue in the postmodern world, dominated by digital media. Representants of older generations are standing against a serious challenge: they have to tame virtual space, which is the natural envirenment for young people. Examples of politics-seniors who are active in social media (TikTok, YouTube) presented in this work, prove that in the present days only those people who know the language of network’s challenges can influence young generations of potential voters.

Keywords: intergenerational dialogue; challenge; cyberworld; influencer; social media

Threatening Factors to the German Car Manufacturers and Levers to Counteract

Günter Hofbauer

All industries are driven by changes in technologies, business models and processes. An appropriate response to counteract is a mandatory requirement to survive. Strong signals can be detected for the German car manufacturers, which indicate a radical technological and structural change. These changes represent a bunch of threatening impacts for the existing business model. The Covid-19 pandemic accelerated the visibility of threatening factors. This is remarkable, because the car manufacturing industry contributes about 12 percent to German GDP and thus it is one of the most considerable industries. The thesis of this paper assumes that the existing business model is endangered. The question of research examines the influencing factors on the current business eco systems (BES) in this industry. The strategic analysis will disclose the various and complex impact factors. Methodologically, theoretical, analytical and empirical approaches are used. Research on selected literature aligned at current national and international guidelines leads to a stable basis for the research. Statistical data, topical literature, surveys, and logical conclusions will lead to justified arguments. The scientific purpose of this paper is to analyze the threats to the business system and interrelated BES in order to reveal and direct the imperative transformation process.

Keywords: business model; car manufacturer; threats; eco system; technology

Czech Republic Budget from 2004 till 2020

Radek Jurčík

The overview article concerns about state budget of the Czech Republic after becoming the member country of the European Union (2004) till 2020. The state budget is investigated via analysis of the time series and statistical methods.

Keywords: Budget; Czech Republic; EU; State Budget

COVID and Import Structure of the Czech Republic

Josef Kubík

The overview article concerns about COVID and structure of import to the Czech Republic before COVID period and during COVID period. The article investigates if there are any significant changes. The article also investigates if the import structure to the Czech Republic changed if the pre-COVID period and COVID period is compared in importing more packed medicaments and health supplies such as mask.

Keywords: COVID; Czech Republic; Import; Structure

Applying the Enterprise architecture describing the processes of gathering data and reporting Czech national environmental indicators within EU

Lukas Martin

The article refers to the project National environmental reporting platform (NERP), which is funded by European structural and investment funds (#CZ.03.4.74/0.0/0.0/15_025/0016059). The implementer is Czech National Environment Agency, a ministerial organization established by the Ministry of the Environment. One of its project goals is to get to know and draw the current situation of how the data sets from different Czech organizations are gathered, how the national environment indicators are created and published among the other international institution for environment assessment and analysis, as well for the environmental impact management and sustainable development. The article does not propose the improvement of the current situation, but forces us to think about what should be improved.

Keywords: Data gathering process; Project National environment reporting platform; TOGAT

The pedagogical character of the metaphor in Thomas Aquinas

Adam Machowski

As early as in the 13th century, Thomas Aquinas saw the great pedagogical value of metaphor. This linguistic measure allowed for effective interdisciplinary research and teaching others. The metaphor was also useful in the educational process. But Aquinas also saw the limitations of metaphorical language and the dangers associated with it. Among them was the lack of linguistic precision necessary in some areas of knowledge and the danger of perceiving the world too materially. Generally, however, the metaphor plays a very important role, especially in the initial period of teaching and in navigating many areas of knowledge at the same time.

Keywords: metaphor; pedagogical skills; language skills

Distance working in organizational praxis

Jiří Novosák

The paper is embedded into the topic of distance working (or teleworking) in organizational praxis, it means how the Czech companies implement the possibility of distance working for employees and how employees assess this possibility, respectively working concept. The topic is relevant regarding recent economic, technological and societal changes, as well as actual situation around pandemic COVID-19. According to the findings of questionnaire survey, it is obvious that the concept of distance working brings significant opportunities, deals with several threads, and could be significant part of future working models. Authors hope that research introduced in this paper could bring useful findings for managerial praxis as well as for academic experience.

Keywords: distance working; management; employee; organization; questionnaire

Recommendations for foreigners´ employment in context of the Czech industry

Jana Novosáková

Foreign employees represent special type of labour force, in many economies or economy sectors very important. Its specifics mirror needs of accurate and appropriate approaches of employers. Although is foreigners´ employment relatively common praxis, there is still lack of appropriate managerial skills or willingness to modify and customize the approach to this group of employees. Thus, the full exploitation of opportunities and reduction of negatives or risks is limited. We try to react to the situation by formulating several managerial recommendations in context of foreigners´ employment. The industry sector of the Czech Republic is our case study. Our recommendations are based on interviewing the managers and professional praxis observations. The recommendations focus on acclimatization, fluent training and qualification of the employees.

Keywords: foreign employees; industry; management; recommendations

Organization of education in communist Poland after 1944

Ludwik Szuba

The aim of the article is to present the first days and first months of the operation of the communist operational group sent by Stalin to Poland to take over education. The task they were given was extremely difficult, because the majority of Polish teachers - despite assurances that nothing would change in the school curricula - were distrustful of the new authorities. The communist government imposed by the Soviet Union did not have its own pro-gram. That is why it initially used pre-war regulations. However, such action also served to disguise, in the first period, the real intentions of the communists. However, the remnants of the pre-war order were quickly removed and the new school order brought from Russia was introduced. This meant subjecting Polish edu-cation to communist solutions.

Keywords: PKWN; education; teachers; KRN; Ministry of Education; PPR; ZNP